Research Output
Improving VIP viewer Gaze Estimation and Engagement Using Adaptive Dynamic Anamorphosis
  Anamorphosis for 2D displays can provide viewer centric perspective viewing, enabling 3D appearance, eye contact and engagement, by adapting dynamically in real time to a single moving viewer’s viewpoint, but at the cost of distorted viewing for other viewers. We present a method for constructing non-linear projections as a combination of anamorphic rendering of selective objects whilst reverting to normal perspective rendering of the rest of the scene. Our study defines a scene consisting of five characters, with one of these characters selectively rendered in anamorphic perspective. We conducted an evaluation experiment and demonstrate that the tracked viewer-centric imagery for the selected character results in an improved gaze and engagement estimation. Critically, this is performed without sacrificing the other viewers’ viewing experience. In addition, we present findings on the perception of gaze direction for regularly viewed characters located off-center to the origin, where perceived gaze shifts from being aligned to misalignment increasingly as the distance between viewer and character increases. Finally, we discuss different viewpoints and the spatial relationship between objects.

  • Type:


  • Date:

    10 November 2020

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  • Publisher

    Elsevier BV

  • DOI:


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  • Funders:

    The Walt Disney Company Ltd


Pan, Y., & Mitchell, K. (2021). Improving VIP viewer Gaze Estimation and Engagement Using Adaptive Dynamic Anamorphosis. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 147,



Gaze, Dynamic Anamorphosis, Display

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