Research Output
Translation and validation of the Japanese version of the Birth Satisfaction Scale‐Revised
  Aim: This study aimed to develop a Japanese version of the Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised and evaluate its reliability and validity.

Methods: After translating the Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised into Japanese, we conducted an Internet-based cross-sectional study with 445 Japanesespeaking women within 2 months of childbirth. Of these, 98 participated in the retest 1 month later. Data were analyzed using the COSMIN study design checklist for patient-reported outcome measurement instruments. Content validity was evaluated through cognitive debriefing during the translation process into Japanese. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to verify structural and cross-cultural validities. For hypothesis testing, we tested correlations with existing measures for convergent and divergent validities, and for known-group discriminant validity, we made comparisons between types of childbirth. Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach's α, and test–retest reliability was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient.

Results: For the Japanese-Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised, the established threefactor model fit poorly, whereas the four-factor model fit better. Full metric invariance was observed in both the nulliparous and multiparous groups. Good convergent, divergent, and known-group discriminant validities and test–retest reliability were established. Internal consistency observations were suboptimal; however for vaginal childbirth, the Cronbach's α of the total score was .71.

Conclusions: The Japanese-Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised is a valid and reliable scale, with the exception of internal consistency that requires further investigation. If limited to vaginal childbirth, research, clinical applications, and international comparisons can be drawn.

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    08 October 2023

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    New Funder


Tezuka, A., Hiroyama, N., Suzuki, M., Matsuoka, M., Martin, C. J. H., & Martin, C. R. (2024). Translation and validation of the Japanese version of the Birth Satisfaction Scale‐Revised. Japan Journal of Nursing Science, 21(1), Article e12569.



birth, factor analysis, patient satisfaction, quality of care, validity and reliability

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