Research Output
Political and technical complexities of electronic toll collection: Lessons from Taiwan
  Traditional manual toll collection (MTC) imposes a significant queue length near toll plazas and results in road users delay (travel time loss), administration, fuel consumption, accidents, and other societal costs. Many countries (e.g. the U.S., Japan, Taiwan) have introduced and are continually upgrading Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) systems, thereby achieving key efficiencies and reduction in social costs. ETC systems worldwide have different toll collections technologies, for example, by road usage or Vignette, by peak or non-peak travel, or by distance travelled. Consequently, countries are faced with many technical and political complexities both at the initial consideration of whether to introduce ETC, and in any subsequent development. Taiwan has much experience of both toll collection and also ETC and has a long history in relation to its introduction. This paper presents historical and qualitative interview data with highly experienced ETC operators and government officials in Taiwan. Results are presented and discussed along four major axes: practical applicability, technological development, political variation and publicity and marketing. It also provides a retrospective and current consideration along these axes of technical and political complexities involved with introducing ETC. The paper is intended to inform transportation agencies considering introducing or developing their own ETC systems. Areas of future research for ETC are also suggested.

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  • Date:

    15 January 2022

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  • Publisher

    Elsevier BV

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  • Funders:

    Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan; Edinburgh Napier Funded


Tseng, P., & Pilcher, N. (2022). Political and technical complexities of electronic toll collection: Lessons from Taiwan. Case Studies on Transport Policy, 10(1), 444-453.



Electronic toll collection, Freeway, Taiwan

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