Research Output
Negatively-valenced customer engagement behavior: forms and drivers
  Purpose – This study aims at conceptualising forms and drivers of negatively-valenced Customer Engagement Behavior (CEB). Despite a growing portfolio of conceptual and empirical work on engagement, understanding its negative form remains relatively unknown especially empirically. Within CE literature, a limited number of studies have approached negative valence of engagement, yet not in relation to CEB. Despite extant insights, little is known regarding forms and drivers of negatively-valenced CEB.
Design/Methodology/approach – As this research aim is exploratory, a qualitative approach is adopted and netnography is selected to guide this inquiry. TripAdvisor is selected a relevant focus that fulfils all recommendations for site selection. Data collected over six consecutive phases comprises 954 negatively-valenced online reviews posted on TripAdvisor to hotels, restaurants, and 'things to do' in twelve different destinations worldwide. Data is then thematically analyzed using open and axial coding, and analysis of phases proceeded until theoretical saturation was achieved.
Findings – Drawing on Service Dominant Logic as a theoretical lens and recent literature of CEB, this study identifies six forms of negatively-valenced Influencing Behavior (NVIB), namely, invalidating, dissuading, regretting, warning, sarcastic, and endorsing behaviors. Also, identifies five key drivers of NVIB, namely, service failure, overpricing, deception, disappointment, and insecurity. NVIBs are classified as direct or indirect according to nature and arguably, Purpose of the posted reviews, and a novel conceptualization of relationships between drivers and forms of behavior is provided.
Research limitations/implications – This paper has theoretical implications as it contributes to the growing CEB literature and empirically responds to recent research calls for conceptualising forms and drivers of negatively-valenced CEB. Also, offers a research agenda that will contribute to the extant literature of CEB. Regarding limitations, the unobtrusive approach of netnography did not allow exploring actual outcomes of each form.
Practical implications – This paper enhances managerial understanding of how customers engage negatively with their firms by providing them with forms and drivers of NVIB. Also, provides several ways in which NVIB may negatively affect firms or service providers. And, offers relevant recommendations to practioners regarding powerful forms of NVIB, that are likely to help managing NVIB in a desired way.
Originality/value – This study provides a novel conceptualization of forms and drivers of NVIB; classify forms into direct and indirect; and identifies relationships between forms and key drivers.
Key words - Customer Engagement Behavior, Influencing Behavior, Service-Dominant Logic, Online reviews, Value co-creation.

  • Date:

    20 June 2017

  • Publication Status:


  • Library of Congress:

    HD28 Management. Industrial Management

  • Dewey Decimal Classification:

    658 General management

  • Funders:

    University of Strathclyde


Azer, J., & Alexander, M. (2017). Negatively-valenced customer engagement behavior: forms and drivers. In 5th The Naples Forum on Service: Service Dominant Logic, Network & Systems Theory and Service Science: Integrating Three Perspectives for a New Service Agenda. , (7)


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