Research Output
Maritime litter and sewage contamination at Cramond Beach Edinburgh — A comparative study
  Beach litter was monitored between April and October 1994 at Cramond Beach, Edinburgh. When compared with data collected over the same period in 1984, it was found that overall there was a twofold increase in litter, although the proportion of items found in some categories had decreased (containers, confectionery and crisp wrappers, clothing, fishing line, fishing net, shotgun cartridges, metal, cardboard and paper). Increases occurred in plastic fragments, plastic bags/ sheeting, glass fragments, wood, rope, wire and ‘other’. In addition, in 1994 sewage-related debris was included as a separate category, owing to the large increase in these items. In 1984 they were so infrequent that when found were classified as ‘other’, while in 1994 they composed an average of 14% of all litter found. It was concluded that beach cleanliness and, in particular, the presence of untreated sewage should be of national concern. Actions should be taken to reduce the amount of litter and stop raw sewage reaching the Firth of Forth, both by raising public awareness and by investment in the proper technology to improve current treatment measures.

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  • Date:

    31 May 1998

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  • Library of Congress:

    QR Microbiology

  • Dewey Decimal Classification:

    577.7 Marine ecology


Velander, K. A., & Mocogni, M. (1998). Maritime litter and sewage contamination at Cramond Beach Edinburgh — A comparative study. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 36(5), 385-389.



marine debris, beach litter, sewage, plastics, Firth of Forth

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