Research Output
Screen Printed Thick Film Reference Electrodes for Electrochemical Sensing
  This paper presents printed thick film Ag|AgCl|KCl reference electrodes (RE) for electrochemical sensors. The screenprinted REs with 10-μm thick glass-KCl salt matrix layer exhibit a stable potential of 5 mV. Cyclic voltammetric analysis shows that the anodic and cathodic peak current of the RE increases with the scan rate in the range of 25-150 mVs -1 . The analytical performance of the REs shows a stable open circuit potential for the NaCl concentrations in the range of 30-100 mM. Testing the presented REs for electrochemical pH sensor application (with RuO 2 -based sensitive electrode) the sensitivity of 55 mV/pH was noted in the pH range of 4.5-9. Evaluating the effect of temperature on the performance of REs, a potential variation of -3.8 mV/ °C was observed. Finally, a LabVIEW interface was developed to store, analyze, and calculate the sensitivity of the sensor under different temperature conditions. The LabVIEW interface can also be used to calculate the pH-value/temperature of unknown solutions under known temperature/pH conditions.

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  • Date:

    28 May 2018

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  • Publisher

    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

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  • Funders:

    Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council


Manjakkal, L., Vilouras, A., & Dahiya, R. (2018). Screen Printed Thick Film Reference Electrodes for Electrochemical Sensing. IEEE Sensors Journal, 18(19), 7779-7785.



Reference electrodes, pH sensor, thick film sensors, electrochemical studies, screen printing

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