Research Output
Conceptualizing negatively valenced influencing behavior: forms and triggers
The purpose of this paper is to show how customers engage in negatively valenced influencing behavior (NVIB) and what triggers customers to use different forms of NVIB in an online context.
A qualitative study is conducted using an unobtrusive netnography. Data collected comprise of 954 negatively valenced online reviews posted on TripAdvisor to hotels, restaurants, and “things to do” in 12 different destinations worldwide.
Drawing on the recent literature relating to customer engagement behavior (CEB), this paper identifies and conceptualizes the relationship between five cognitive (service failure, overpricing, deception) and emotional (disappointment and insecurity) triggers of six forms of direct (dissuading, warning, and endorsing competitors) and indirect (discrediting, expressing regret, and deriding) NVIB.
Research limitations/implications
The unobtrusive netnography has inherent limitations that lend itself to inductive rich insights rather than generalization. The study only focuses on NVIB within a specific online context, namely, TripAdvisor.
Practical implications
This paper provides managers with knowledge of the specific triggers of NVIB. Additionally, the paper conceptualizes the various forms of NVIB, how customers use them, and what triggers them to use each form. Moreover, the paper offers relevant data-inferred recommendations to service managers on how to manage each form of NVIB.
This research is the first to identify the forms and triggers of NVIB, classify direct and indirect forms, and conceptualize the relationships between forms and triggers

  • Type:


  • Date:

    20 April 2018

  • Publication Status:


  • Publisher


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  • Cross Ref:


  • ISSN:


  • Library of Congress:

    GV Recreation Leisure

  • Dewey Decimal Classification:

    338.4791 Tourist industry

  • Funders:

    Edinburgh Napier Funded


Azer, J., & Alexander, M. J. (2018). Conceptualizing negatively valenced influencing behavior: forms and triggers. Journal of Service Management,



Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management; Business, Management and Accounting (miscellaneous); Strategy and Management

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