Research Output
Cold temperature does not affect perceived exertion in males and females during submaximal cycling
  Background: Perceived exertion is an acknowledged indicator of exercise intensity and homeostasis disturbance of an individual, however, there are few studies that have examined the influence of cold temperatures on perceived exertion measurements. Cognition is crucial to perception and exposure to cold temperatures can elicit decrements in cognition. Aims & Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine if, and to what extent, exposure to cold environments may influence perceived exertion and cognitive ability. Study Design: Randomised controlled trial. Materials & Methods: Sixteen participants (m= 8, f= 8, age: 22.3 ± 1.7 years (mean ± SD)), completed two trials in a randomised order in COLD (5°C) and CONTROL (18 °C, 55% relative humidity) conditions. During each trial, following a standardised warm up, participants performed a 6-minute cycle ergometer submaximal exercise. Cognitive ability was assessed pre and post exercise with a reaction time (RT) test. Participant’s physiological responses were measured using Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE), Heart Rate (HR), Oxygen consumption (VO2), Minute Ventilation (VE), Tympanic (Tt) and Skin Temperature (Tsk) continuously during testing. Statistics: Two-way repeated measures Analysis of Variances (ANOVA), were between environmental conditions over time.Data are reported as mean (M) ± standard deviation (SD).Ordinal Friedman ANOVA tests were conducted on RPE data between environmental conditions and gender. Non-parametric descriptive statistics were reported as medians (Mdn) and inter-quartile ranges (IQR) (25th–75thPercentile). Statistical significance was accepted at p< 0.05. Results: There was no significant difference (p> 0.05) reported in RPE, VO2 and VEbetween COLD and CONTROL groups, however, significant decreases in Tsk(p= 0.001) and Tt(p= 0.001) were observed in COLD compared to CONTROL groups. Additionally, no significant differences (p > 0.05) in RT occurred between COLD and CONTROL. Furthermore, no significant differences in RPE were established between genders. Conclusions: Short-term exposure to cold temperatures does not significantly affect physical exertion perception or cognitive ability

  • Type:


  • Date:

    30 June 2020

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  • DOI:


  • Funders:

    Edinburgh Napier Funded


Gandy, A., Baird, M. F., Boyd, G. W., Connaboy, C., & Graham, S. M. (2020). Cold temperature does not affect perceived exertion in males and females during submaximal cycling. International Journal of Sport, Exercise and Health Research, 4(1), 31-36.



Cold, Cognition, Perceived Exertion, Thermoregulation

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